The motions of the Moon around the Earth and of the Earth around the Sun are complex. The motions involved in revolutions are superimposed on the movements involved in rotations. The Earth and the Moon both turn on their own axis rotationbut both also move around another object revolution. The rotation of the Earth 24 hours explains the alternation of day and night. The revolution of the Earth around the Sun The fact that the rotation of the Moon on its own axis and its revolution around the Earth both require the same amount of time In this animation, neither proportions nor time scales are accurately presented.
Click on to start. The period of rotation of an object is the time it needs to complete one full turn on its own axis.
Astronomer ‘exposes NASA cover up’, claiming second sun, and Nibiru REAL during broadcast
This should not be confused with the period of revolutionwhich is the time needed for an… Subscribe now to read more about this topic! Enroll your school to take advantage of the sharing options. Once registered, the links below will include activation codes. Our latest release Fuel cell. Astronomy Earth, Moon, and Sun.
This should not be confused with the period of revolutionwhich is the time needed for an….Please use a newer browser to see the simulation. The complete source code of the simulation can be viewed here. We went through the basics of creating an HTML simulation in the harmonic oscillator tutorial. This tutorial will not be as detailed as the one about the harmonic oscillator.
Here we will only discuss the physics and math behind the orbital simulation. It is an excellent book that introduces classical mechanics and explains how to write the equations of motion of a system using the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods. Please refer to these resources if you want more information on the physics used here. We begin by choosing a coordinate system for our simulation.
Since the Earth is rotating around the Sun it makes sense to use polar coordinate system shown on Figure 1. The origin of this coordinate system is located at the center of the Sun. This is a simplification, since both the Earth and the Sun rotate around the joint center of mass. However, for the purpose of our simulation we assume that the Sun does not move. The potential energy, which comes from the gravitational attraction between the Sun of mass M and the Earth, is described by the following equation:.
We will find the equations of motions using the Lagrangian, which is the kinetic energy minus the potential energy of the Sun-Earth system:. Now we know the Lagrangian and can apply the Euler-Lagrange equation to get two equations of motion. The first one is found using the following formula, involving partial derivatives of the Lagrangian from Equation 3 with respect to distance r and its time derivative:. We will use Equation 5 in our program and compute the distance r from its second derivative.
After differentiating and simplifying we get derivation :. We have done the hard part and found Equations 5 and 8, which describe the evolution of the Sun-Earth system over time. We set the initial distance to be equal to the length of the astronomical unit AUwhich is the average distance between the Sun and the Earth.
The first time derivative of the distance, or the speed of the Earth, will be zero. Note that this is the speed of the Earth in the direction of the Sun, not the speed in the direction of the orbit.
The initial conditions describe the system at the start of the simulation. As time changes the Earth will move and the four parameters will change as well. Therefore, in our program we need to store the current state of the system, which is represented by the same four values: position, angle and their time derivatives, or speeds.Conspiracy theory websites have gone into overload following comments made by seasoned astronomer Paul Cox during a live broadcast of Mercury transiting the sun.
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Mr Cox, a presenter for the respected online Slooh Telescope channel, which broadcasts live shows to coincide with significant astronomical events, made the comments as Mercury was filmed as a tiny dot passing over the surface of our sun. Nibiru, or Planet X, is an alleged huge planet with a vast orbit, that conspiracy theorists claim will one day pass so close to Earth that its gravitational pull could break havoc on our planet, triggering earthquakes and other catastrophic events.
Believers of the conspiracy claimed they were right earlier this year after NASA announced there was a new planetnine times the size of Earth, lurking at the edge of our solar system. NASA and other organisations, they usually hide that stuff away from us, but there it is.
It is true. NASA and other organisations, they usually hide that stuff away from us. Regardless of how he made the remarks, it has prompted a flurry of conspiracy theory YouTube videos suggesting Nibiru is about to make its pass.
InOsama Bin Laden was killed by US Navy Seals and buried at sea, but now conspiracy theorists claim that it was all a lie and he is still alive. Was Paul Cox just messing with us?
Astronomer Paul Cox. Play slideshow. He suggested they may just have been joking, but doubted they would be able to retract it. Is the Earth flat?It can be built in a couple hours. The earth's equatorial plane is represented by the "equator board" see picture.
The "turntable board" is pinned to the center of the equatorial board and can be rotated to model the hour of the day. The picture shows the turntable board at about 2 hours before solar noon.
The "ground board" is mounted to the equatorial board at a tilt of 90 - latitude degrees. This board represents the surface of the earth at the latitude the collector will be located. In the picture, the ground board is set for a latitude of 45 degrees.
The sun is represented by a spotlight that remains in a fixed position as the equator and turntable boards are rotated to model different seasons of the year and times of the day. Showing the "sun" spotlight and the simulator. Normally sun is mounted further away to reduce light angle errors. I use a 75 watt halogen "spot" light.
The sun should be aligned with the south or solar noon axis of the turntable board with the turntable set in the 12 noon position. To use the simulator, you mount a scale model of your collector and reflector on ground board. You then darken the room, and turn on the spot light that acts as the sun.
You can easily see how well your reflector design actually reflects light onto the collector by varying the tilt of the equator board to represent the different seasons, and by rotating the turntable board to model the time of day. The simulator is very fast and easy to use -- you can go from 2 pm on the summer solstice to 2pm on the equinox or winter solstice with just one quick hand movement -- you can easy flip back and forth between different times of day and times of year in seconds and see how the pattern of light reflected onto the collector changes.
By building the reflector out of aluminized Mylar cemented onto cardboard, you can try different reflector shapes, orientations and curves very easily. Light meter readings can be taken on the various surfaces of the model collector and reflector, and I see no reason why the relative values of these light light levels would not be in the same ratios of the actual sun light levels on the corresponding real objects. If these light meter readings are taken on different test runs, then the exact distance of sun to model must be duplicated, and things like aging or the sun spotlight and line voltage variations should be considered.
There are no doubt many good ways to build this kind of simulator, but here is what I did. If you have any improvement suggestions, please send them in. The equatorial board support should be high enough to allow the equatorial board to tilt 23 degrees down toward the front and also toward the back. When the equatorial board is parallel to the base board it is in the equinox position, when it is tilted 23 degrees down toward the spotlight it is in the summer solstice position, and when tilted 23 degrees down toward the back, it is in the winter solstice position.
Make the ground board so that it tilts up at an angle of 90 - latitude degrees to the turntable. This board will then accurately represent the ground surface at your latitude. Think about the angle your front yard makes with the equatorial plane of the earth -- that's the angle you want assuming your front yard is not a hill. Add the angle stops so that the equatorial board is at the summer solstice position when against the front angle stop and at the winter solstice when against the back angle stop.
For the equinoxes, I just us wedge piece of plywood of the right height between the equatorial board and the base. Assuming you live on earth, the stops will be cut at an angle of You can set up the size of the simulator and the model to about anything you want or have a large enough shop for.
On mine, the diameter of the turntable is 24 inches. This allows me to have models of collectors and reflectors that are in the 10 inches tall or wide area. This seems like a good size to work with to me in that the models of this size are quick and easy to make out of plywood or cardboard, but are large enough that you don't have to be overly fussy to get good accuracy.
Since the spotlight is a lot closer that the 90 million miles our sun sits away from us, there will be some error in the angle that the light comes from on some parts of the model.
The part of the model that the spot is centered on will have no error. I will add more examples of using the simulator here as time goes on -- if you build one, please send pictures of it and how you use it. Just to get a feel for what a good reflector geometry is for a vertical collector for different times of year, I did this exercise using a 9 by 9 inch reflector below a 9 by 9 inch collector model size to see what the best angles were for the different times of year, to see the pattern of reflected light on the collector throughout the day, and to try to get a rough idea what the benefit might beWith creation tools, you can draw on the map, add your photos and videos, customize your view, and share and collaborate with others.
Add placemarks to highlight key locations in your project, or draw lines and shapes directly on the map. Make use of Google Earth's detailed globe by tilting the map to save a perfect 3D view or diving into Street View for a experience.
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An Easy to Build Earth-Sun Simulator for Testing Reflector Designs
Create on Earth Draw on the map Add placemarks to highlight key locations in your project, or draw lines and shapes directly on the map. Adding placemarks and lines to Google Earth. Adding a photo to a place. Viewing your story as a presentation and sharing it with a collaborator. Find someplace you love. Explore worldwide satellite imagery and 3D buildings and terrain for hundreds of cities. Choose your adventure with Voyager.
Take a guided tour around the globe with some of the world's leading storytellers, scientists, and nonprofits. Immerse yourself in new cultures and test your knowledge of the world. Catch Carmen Sandiego. Follow clues and track her down! Launch in Earth. Earth View. Explore a collection of the most striking and enigmatic landscapes available in Google Earth. This is Home. Crab Migration on Christmas Island.
Follow the migration of the red crab as they emerge from the forests of Christmas Island and head to the beach to spawn. Reading the ABCs from Space. NASA satellite imagery and astronaut photography reveal where an English alphabet can be found in the landforms of the Earth.However, due to extremely high demand, some of our products are currently out of stock.
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The enormous machine, which looks like an insect's eye, uses lamps to simulate sunlight, making it a handy tool for testing things like solar panels or generating clean energy. Scientists threw the switch on the world's largest artificial sun on Thursday, which happened to be the birthday of the fellow who designed it.
Scientists can focus the kilowatt honeycomb of xenon short-arc lamps on an area as small as 61 square inches and create 10, times the solar radiation that would otherwise shine on that spot. And the temperature on that spot? Up to 5, degrees Fahrenheit. That kind of power comes in handy when you want to test the effect of solar radiation on things like satellites.
But what really excites scientists are the possibilities for using that intense heat to split water into hydrogen and oxygen to produce a clean source of energy. Of course, the scientists monitor their work with cameras, because the intense light and heat would kill a human. Bugs beware. View Comments. Sponsored Stories Powered By Outbrain.
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Here's Why.Inside NASA's VF-6 Solar Simulation Chamber